Prehistory

Many millions of years ago the territory of present-day Mongolia was covered with thickets of fern, and the climate was hot and humid. Dinosaurs lived on Earth 160 million. Years and became extinct in its heyday. The reasons for this phenomenon is still not well established and scholars put forward different hypotheses. Mankind has learned of the existence of these giant animals only 150 years ago. Science knows several hundred species of dinosaurs. The most famous discovery the remains of a dinosaur belongs to the American scientific expedition led by R.Endryusa, which was established in the 20s of the last century in the Gobi Desert. Now this finding is kept in the museum of the city of New York. The bones of dinosaurs found in Mongolia, are also found in the museums of St. Petersburg and Warsaw.  The exposition of the Museum of Natural History is one of the best in the world and was exhibited in many countries. On the territory of present Mongolia more than 800 thousand. Years ago, there were the ancestors of modern man. Sami Homo Sapiens lived here for 40 thousand. Years ago. The researchers suggest that 20-25 thousand. Years ago there was a great migration from Central Asia to America through the Bering Strait. nomads

On the banks of the Yellow River Chinese have established one of the first civilizations in the history of mankind since ancient times and had a script. The written records of Chinese a lot of talk about the nomads who are constantly raided China. The Chinese called these aliens & quot; hu & quot ;, which means & quot; & quot ;, the barbarians, and divides them into & quot; syunhu & quot; northern savages, and & quot; dunhu & quot; eastern barbarians. At that time, China was not a single state consists of a number of independent kingdoms and nomadic tribes exist separately and did not have the state system. Chinese kingdom, fearing raids of nomadic tribes, built on the northern border of their territories wall. In 221 BC It was formed the state of Qin, and thus for the first time disparate kingdoms were merged into one. Emperor Qin Shi Huang united states numerous walls built kingdoms into one coherent system of protection from the nomads. In order to break through a strong defense led by nomads united Shanyu Mode and formed a strong state, went down in history as the Hun. Thus, in 209 BC in what is now Mongolia was installed first state system. The question of origin of the Xiongnu they were Turks, Mongols and other peoples on the remains controversial to this day. However, the state of the Seljuks, Xiongnu, Turks, Khitan, Avars, China, the Great Mongol Empire, the Golden Horde, the Ottoman Empire, the empire of Timur, as well as the current state, such as Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan is the direct successor of the first nomadic Hun state. About 400 years hunnu played an important historical role. Later, after the division into southern and northern Hsiung-nu, they were defeated by the Chinese and Tungus, and thus the Xiongnu state ceased to exist. Nomads, united against the Xiongnu in 156 year formed the most powerful state in Central Asia - Sianbi. At that time, China's regulations powerful Han Dynasty. In the III century by Sianbi separated Toba, who later took over North China. Later Toba descendants were assimilated by the Chinese. Descendants dunhu Zsuzsanna has a strong army, and in the V century they conquered territory from Harshara to Korea. They were the first to use the title of Khan. Researchers believe that Zsuzsanna were Mongol tribe. The period of the Tang dynasty in China was a time of cultural flowering. Later, Zsuzsanna had been conquered by the Turks, and later they reached during the wars of the European territories. They are known in history as the Avars. They belong to the largest gains made until Genghis Khan. To VII century the Turks became the most powerful state in the world. During their campaigns, they reached Asia Minor and became the ancestors of the modern Turks. Turkic state fell after numerous attacks by powerful nations, united against them. On the territory of the defeated the Turkic states emerged Uighur. Capital Karabalgas Uighur state was discovered during excavations in the valley of the Orkhon River. In 840, they were defeated by the Kyrgyz, who reached them on the Yenisei River. Kyrgyz long ruled the Central Asian and Mongolian tribes were driven to the Khitan Pamir. Since then, the territory of Mongolia began to rule only the Mongols. As they gain Khitan gradually moved to the south of the Great Wall of China, and during the formation of the current capital of Beijing are mostly dissolved in the Chinese population and remained in China as the Liao Dynasty history.